First Chapter

Typos — p. 273: descredit [= discredit]

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Adulteration, severely punished in the Middle Ages, 44, 45; instances of, 103, 142; of Food and Drink Act, 104; futility of this Act, 104.

Adulteration Acts, inadequately revived functions of mediæval Gilds, 43

Aesop, 49

Agriculture, should be encouraged by Conservatives, 234; revival of, necessary for national physique, 235

Aliens, Norman and Plantagenet Kings hostile to settlement of, 119, 120; unable to hold real estate till 1844, 121; restrictions against, under William III and the Georges, 121, 122; naturalisation facilities granted in 1844, 122; and extended in 1870; corrupting influence of, on the masses, 123

Aliens' Act of 1905, 123, 145

Anglo-Saxons, their independence and self-reliance, 139

Apprentice system, essential for mediæval aristocracy of labour, 45

Aquinas, St. Thomas, on limitations of self-government, 203

Architecture, Gothic, the creation of the Romantic spirit, 53; description of, 54

Aristocracy, at one with esoteric Conservatism, 23; reason of failure of, 25; Disraeli on duty of, 30 n.; of labour in the Middle Ages, 46

Aristocrat, definition of the true, 38

Aristophanes, 49

Aristotle, 49; on the necessity of caring for health, 59 n.; on equality, 64 n.; his belief in authority, 65; his concern about the body, 66 n.; on a cause of sedition, 238

Athens, besotment of, when all the citizens became politicians, 71; impermanence of, due to democratic control, 72

Bacon, Nathaniel, on Bicameral Government, 190 n.

Ball, John, preached equality, 178

Barebones Parliament, proposed suppression of English Universities, 107

Beauty, dreads change, 42

Beaconsfield, Lord, his Food and Drug Act, 104. See also Disraeli.

Bentham, Jeremy, his misunderstanding of individual liberty, 63 n.

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Birth Control, unnecessary if degeneracy is eliminated, 231; leads to racial suicide, 226–228

Bolingbroke, on government, 73

Bolshevists, not responsible for unrest in England, 212

Bread, adulterated, 142; needs reform, 218

Bright, John, opposed to factory legislation, 125

British Empire, the, England's heritage, 249; critics of, 249, 250; these critics confuted, 251 — (a) the believers in equality, 251, 253; (b) professing Christians, 254, 255; not a blessing to the conquered races, 256; culture of, on the whole superior to those it has supplanted, 257; magnitude of its task, 258; the creation of Conservatism, 259; its preservation the duty of Conservatives, 260

Broadmindedness, a sign of decadence, 4

Brougham, his Education Bill, no; opposed to factory legislation but active in abolishing negro slavery, 125

Buckle, on deleterious effects of Romanticism, 52 n.; his misunderstanding of the law of heredity, 61 n.

Burke, his confounding of change with progress, 11; his standard of a statesman, 14; his study of human nature, 19 n.; his opposition to Chatham's reforms, 57 n.; on the experience required for government, 69; his mysticism, 132; on the love of country, 248

Capitalism, false association with Toryism, 92 n.; the vices of modern, not inherent in capitalism in general, 162; inhumanity of modern, 163, 164

Capitalist Press, the, its erroneous argument that unrest is due to Bolshevist influence, 211

Catholicism, suited to governmental authority, 86; more compatible with authority than Protestantism, 176; a check on anarchical doctrines of Christianity, 176, 179

Cecil, Lord Hugh, his confounding of change with progress, 11; his confusion regarding opportunism, 28; on the "Prætorian Guard" of political parties, 36; his misunderstanding of individual liberty, 63

Chamberlain, Joseph, his idea of Imperial Federation, 259, 260

Change, the three forces leading to, 6, 9; desire for, necessarily temporary, 8; good or bad according to type demanding it, 10; not necessarily progress, 13

Chansons de Geste, fantastic nature of the, 51

Charles I, his adherence to principle, 30; the first great Tory, 58; the greatest Conservative, 80; a patron of art,

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    80 n.; the last King to defend his people, 81, 82; his care of health and beauty, 97; his severity in enforcing laws against adulteration, 101; rightly said it was the King's prerogative to defend the people's liberty, 189

Charles II, tolerated owing to prestige shed on monarchy through martyrdom of Charles I, 30; his powers curtailed owing to his dissolute character, 82; the first conscious Imperialist, 83; expansion of England under, 84; encouraged learning, 84; not the gentleman his father was, 85; his taste for science, 108 n.; his toleration of Jews, 118; his reason for preferring Catholicism, 176

Chatham, his reforms opposed by Tories, 56 n.; and by Burke, 57 n.

Children, exploitation of, in factories, 124, 125; and mines, 126

Children's Employment Act of 1864,127

Christianity, other-worldliness of, 50; saved by the Reformation, 51; over emphasises importance of the soul, 66; essentially an international and therefore disturbing force, 168, 169; its revolutionary doctrines, 176; extreme Puritanism of primitive, 178

Churchill, Mr., his erroneous division of society, 213

Church of England, political advantages and disadvantages of establishment of, 171; supported by Tories, 174; chaos in, 174; its anarchical nature a great handicap to Conservatives, 176; the Toryism of, 177; founded on anarchical principles, 180; attempts to establish order in, 181; humiliating state of chaos in, 182

Church, the Holy Catholic, insisted on quality, 46; an international power, 170

Classic, definition of the term, 47; the permanent appeal of the, 49

Clemenceau, a journalist, 136

Clock, the grandfather, why it is a "classic", 48

Coal, great increase in use of, 89; bought by poor in small quantities, 241; high price of, largely due to middlemen, 242

Cobbett, his belief in property and responsibility, 59; on the Reformation, 169

Cobden, opposed to factory legislation, 125

Cox, Harold, on over-population, 225, 226; his mistaken advocacy of Birth Control, 226, 228

Commodus, not a refutation of belief in heredity, 61

Commons, the, growth of their power, 186

Commons, House of, payment of Members of, 193 n.; the least desirable element in the Constitution, 194; doomed

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    by Parliament Bill, 198, 202; reform of, necessary, 206

Communism, alluring nature of its fantastic Utopias, 73, 74

Communists become Conservatives after their object is achieved, 7

Confucius, on caring for the heart of the people, 20 n.

Conservative Party, the, have adopted exoteric doctrines through stupidity, 17; wrongly regarded as anti-popular, 23, 24; always a defender of the people, 23; first use of term, 103 n.; the only one that can shoulder the burden of protecting the people, 213, 216; reform of education the duty of, 223; must deal with problem of degeneration, 230; its weakness due to lack of a thinking body behind it, 245; imperative need for formation of such a body, 246

Conservatives, their duty to distinguish between change and progress, 12; their legitimate objects, 17–21; their ignorance of their own principles, 26; their opportunism, 29; their failure as leaders, 31; concerned with problems of permanence, 47, 54; must be realistic, 55; should be patriarchal, 58; believe in private property and responsibility, 58; care for the people's health, 59; should be intolerant of foreigners, 59; have no romantic ideas about human goodness, 59, 60; oppose granting too much political liberty, 67; have definitely opposed democracy, 73; often confused, 74; often copied Liberals, 75; have lately too often identified themselves with the Capitalists, 75; should be articulate about their principles, 77; the denizens of rural districts, 78; their neglect of urgent questions, 107; should be opposed to Jewish emancipation and intermarriage, 116, 117; their lack of ideas, 128; but not on that account more stupid than the Liberals who have only fantastic ideas, 130; have shunned the field of ideas, 135; and are consequently defenceless, 135; their foolish endorsement of vicious Liberal principles, 141; their carelessness about the people's food, 141–143; abetted enslavement of the workers, 146; their failure to deal with the Jewish question, 155; their failure in dealing with industrial growth, 160; their support of the Church of England, 174; handicapped by the anarchical nature of the national Church, 176; their difficulty to be loyal to the Church and to their own principles, 180, 181, 183; should have insisted on order within the Church, 180; their imperative duty to do

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    this without delay, 182, 184; still speak of the Crown as though it possessed power, 186; should increase power of the Crown, 188, 189; their duty to restore power of the Crown and of the House of Lords, 198, 207; irreconcilable line of cleavage between, and Liberals, 124; must deal with question of over-population, 224; should have a vigorous policy with regard to race-improvement, 234; should arrest urbanisation and encourage agriculture, 234, 235, 237; must improve economic status of the people, 237–240; their duty to preserve the Empire, 260. See also Tories.

Conservatism, the exoteric meaning of, now universal, 1; desirability of, 2; necessarily hostile to the foreigner, 3; excess of, necessary for great national achievements, 4; exoteric, interpreted as policy of no change, 6; not a brake on progress, 11; esoteric meaning of, 12; now regarded as merely obstructive, 13; necessary for patriotism, 16; definition of esoteric, 17, 21; concerned only with qualitative, values, 21; at one with aristocracy, 23, 24; reason of failure of, 25, 26; constitutes a vacuum in political thought, 33; not peculiar to a class, 38; definitely opposed to democracy, 73; now completely severed from realistic principles, 130; treatises on principles of, hardly exist, 131, 134, 137; must be concerned with national health, 138; but has long ceased to be so, 138, 139; true, in connection with medical needs of the people, 140; finds little support in the doctrines of the National Church, 180; inherent in all ranks of society, 214; the only hope for the future, 262

Constitution, the British, its haphazard development, 184, 185; now means nothing except activities of the Lower House, 191

Constitutionalism, the period of mediæval, 186, 204

Constitutional Monarchy, gradual establishment of, 81, 82

Corn Laws, Protectionists rightly opposed to repeal of, 235

Cromwell, owed his naval victories to foresight of Charles I, 81

Crown, the, gradual curtailment of its powers, 186; its power now nominal, 187; Disraeli's desire to increase the power of, 188; an hereditary, necessary to the Constitution, 189

Cultivation, intensive, possibilities of, 236

Culture, a great, developed in countries possessing stability, 3

Culture-Potential, in native

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    races, 39; in social types, 40, 41

Darwin, on the undesirability of primogeniture, 62 n.

Defoe, undermined Englishman's sound dislike of the foreigner, 157

Degeneracy, appalling state of, in England, 221

Degeneration, progressive physical, proved, 229; duty of Conservatives to deal with problem of, 230

Democracy, hostile to quality, 21; misery the chief propelling power of, 94; now threatened with annihilation, 199; limitations of, 203, 204; patriarchal element in sound, 206

Democratic Disillusionment, now a fact, 203

De Quincey, his erroneous opinion of Conservatism, 23; somewhat modifies this, 25; on Protestantism, 172

Dictatorship, England drifting towards, 202

Disraeli, on the duty of power, 20 n., 58; on the failure of the gentlemen of England, 30; on the duty of aristocracy, 30 n.; his condemnation of the Tories, 31; his belief in race, 55 n.; on caring for the health of the people, 59; his concern for the body, 66; his opinion of politics as a calling, 71; on the decline of the power of the Crown, 81; his mysticism, 132; his confusion about race, 133; his concern about national health, 138 n.; his exploitation of the idea of race, 155 n.; on the Tory Party, 166; his desire to preserve the Church of England, 183; and his attempt to establish uniformity in it, 184 n.; his desire to increase the power of the Crown, 18 8; on the evanescence of Parliament, 200 n.; on the necessity of disasters to awaken England, 240. See also Beaconsfield.

Dole, the, inordinate use of, due to decline of old English stock, 159

Dorset, high death rate from tuberculosis in, 217

Drilling, its pernicious effects on children, 220

Drink, poor quality of the people's, a cause of their discontent, 218

Drummond, Thomas, his belief in property and responsibility, 59

Education, various attempts at dealing with national, 109–114; opposition to free, in 1858, 114; free, compulsory, established, 114; persistently Whig attitude of Conservatives towards problem of, 143; free and compulsory opposed to Conservative principles, 145; and obnoxious to true English love of independence, 146 n.; suggested reform of, 221

Electorate, the, increase of, 32

Emigration, cannot keep pace

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    with increase of population, 226; a cause of national deterioration, 231

England, fond of stability, 2; owes her success to hidebound Conservatism, 5; expansion of, under Charles II, 84; her sound dislike of the foreigner, 116; mediæval, wisely Conservative in her hostility to Jews, 117; made a home of raging amateurism and quackery by the belief in the right of private judgment, 175

English, the, still the most Conservative people of Europe, 5; their strong character but also lack of logical faculty, 179, 180; the particularist character of, opposed to centralised government, 185; slander on, to call England the Mother of Parliaments, 185; naturally hostile to that part of the government which has most power, 185

English Language, the, an ideal means of training the mind, 222; ignorance of, dangerous for the proletariat, 222, 223

Equality, fantastic Liberal belief in, 63, 64; belief of Locke, Condorcet, Jefferson, and Mill in, 63, 64, 65

Erasmus, his letter describing filth in English houses, 96 n.; on the decline of learning after Luther, 108

Fabian Society, the, a body of pamphleteers behind the Liberal and Labour Parties, 136; the thinking body behind Liberalism, 244

Factory Act, the first, passed by Liberals, 125

Food, early statutes dealing with adulteration of, 100, 101; deplorable condition of, 105; the, of the people incredibly bad, 217

Food and Drug Acts, their inadequacy, 104

Foods, (Proprietory), false claims made on behalf of, 219; excessive use of, by working classes, 219; suggested reform in sale of, 220

Forster, his Elementary Education Bill, 113

Free Meals, statistics of, 115

French Revolution, its effect on English politics, 93

Froude, on Party Government, 14 n.; on the duties of the Tories, 26

General Strike, the, overcome without bloodshed owing to the ill-health of the people, 175; defeated by the Conservatives among the masses, 216

Gentlemen, the, the proper leaders of England, 29; now ill-prepared for the task, 34

George I, set the precedent of not attending Cabinet meetings, 82, 83

George III, his mistaken idea of Kingship, 87

George V, his powerlessness, 196

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Georges, the, tolerated owing to prestige given to monarchy by martyrdom of Charles I, 30

Germany, her capacity for providing her own agricultural needs, 236

Gilds, the medieval, aimed at securing good work, 43; their insistence on quality, 43–45

Gladstone, his Naturalisation Act, 122; opposed to Factory legislation, 125

Haynes, E. S. P., on fraud of political liberty, 68

Health, national, should be secured by Conservatives, 18; the object of all Conservatives, 59; decline of, after Industrial Revolution, 95; neglected by both Whigs and Tories, 97; worse in rural than urban districts owing to abuse of tinned food, 217; Royal Commission of 1843 to enquire into, 98; Board of, formed, 99; various Acts concerning, 100; failure of Ministry of, 233

Henry VIII, his establishment of a national Church, 169, 170

Heredity, the law of, misunderstood by Liberals, 61; explanation of the law of, 62; the only guarantee of permanence in human affairs, 189

Horace, 49

Hume, his right understanding of Toryism, 25

Immigration, dangers of allowing, 115; leads to lowering of wages, 145; its pernicious effect on national character, 147; healthy attitude towards, of seventeenth-century Tories 156

Industry, proper organisation of, 162; inhuman attitude towards worker in modern, 164; suggested reorganisation of, 164, 165

Inequality, of men, demands sacrifice of the inferior, 251, 252, 253

Infant Foods, misleading statements concerning, 106

Insurance Act, the, 100; pernicious in destroying independence of the worker, 140; vicious principle of, foolishly endorsed by Conservatives, 141

Insurance Policies, lapsed, a drain on the workers, 241

Internationalism, already established in high finance, 153

Jacobinism, its romanticism, 55; fantastic nature of its principles, 60

James II, alienated Tories owing to his religion, 82; too fanatical to be a Patriot King, 85, 86; his toleration of the Jews, 118; lost his throne for the sake of Catholicism, 176

Jefferson, his belief in equality, 65

Jewish Emancipation, wildest nonsense talked in support of, 148; muddled arguments in debate for and against, 150,

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    151, 154; Jewish Emancipation Bill, passed by Liberals, 119

Jews, should be excluded from political life by Conservatives, 19; unintelligent dislike of, deplored, 116; but should nevertheless be held aloof by Conservatives, 116; harshly treated in mediæval England, 117; favoured under the Commonwealth, 117, 118; and under Charles II and James II, 118; Tory opposition to emancipation of, 119; their difference from the English, one of temperament and culture, 149; their great intellectual power, 152; their international influence in high finance, 153; their influence in development of Capitalism, 153; tend to make power and prestige a question of mere wealth, 154; their plutocratic order of society leads to anarchy, 155; the question of their emancipation never rightly met by Conservatives, 155; their number in England, 155 n.

Journalists, the, now leaders of public opinion, 32; their irresponsibility, 34; possibility of superseding power of, 34; their rise to power in Italy and Russia, 135

Jury System, an exception to majority rule, 225 n.

Kentish Petition, opposed by Tories, 57

Labourer, the agricultural, his anomalous position, 210 n.

Lancet, the, opened its Analytical Sanitary Commission, 102, 103

Laud, his attempt to introduce order into the Church of England, 181 n.

Leprosy, extirpated by mediæval princes, 95

Lenin, a journalist, 136

Liberalism, its romanticism, 54; fantastic nature of its principles, 61; its false interpretation of the law of heredity, 61; its unwise rejection of the hereditary principle, 62; its belief in equality, 63; leads to loss of a nation's identity, 65; undervalues health and the body, 66; its fantastic belief in the goodness of man, 71; has a large literature owing to its romantic outlook, 132; its passion for abstract conceptions, 165 n.; cause of, owes much to Protestantism, 177; now without a raison d'être, 215; its success between 1905 and 1914 due to Fabian Society, 244

Liberal, the, while granting political liberty, disregard individual liberty, 67; the denizens of towns, 78; pass Jewish Emancipation Bill, 119; pass first Factory Act, 125; their fantastic ideas more pernicious than lack of ideas, 130; termed Disraeli's national health programme

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    as "a policy of sewage", 138 n.; should study the subject of heredity before condemning hereditary monarchy, 189; irreconcilable line of cleavage between Conservatives and, 213; united to Socialists by their Romanticism, 214

Liberians, the, low grade of "culture-potential, of", 39, 40

Liberty, political, not freely granted by Conservatives, 67; fraud of political, 68

Liverpool, Lord, his Factory Act, 124

Lloyd George, on national health, 24; his campaign of misrepresentation in connection with the Parliament Bill, 196; enthusiasm for, on part of stay-at-homes who wished to prolong the war, 197 n.

Locke, his fantastic belief in equality, 63 n., 64; his indefensible statement that man is born free, 68 n.

Lollards, the, undermined social order, 171

Lords, House of, not an aristocratic body, 39 n.; its curtailed powers, 190; superior to House of Commons, 193; indispensable element in the legislature, 193; now largely elective, 194

Lunatics, pauper, in London asylums, 230

Luther, decline in learning after, 108; on the right of private judgment, 172; more of a revolutionary than a heretic, 179

Macaulay, on hasty legislation, 99; his stupidity in regard to Jewish emancipation, 148; his popularity due to the childlike shallowness of his mind, 149; a glib womanly thinker, 150

Machiavelli, his criticism of the French, 168

Majorities, acquiescence in rule of, an acknowledgment that might is right, 254, 255

Malthusians, the, their warnings against evils of overpopulation, 225

Mankind, instinctively Conservative, 1; reasons for this, 2

Mediæval representation, 204

Medicines, patent, dilatoriness of Government concerning, 106, 107

Members of Parliament, should be local men, 36

Mencius, on limitations of self-government, 203

Middle Ages, the, preoccupied with quality, 42; care for health and happiness of the people in, 137; wise organisation of industry in, 160; brewers forced to keep up adequate supply of good ale in, 161; conflict of Church and State in, 168

Middlemen, consumer should be protected against, 242; largely responsible for high price of coal, 242; ruthless policy against, essential, 243

Milk, bad supply of, 217

Mill, his belief in equality, 65; his false ideas about educa-

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    tional value of self-government, 69, 70, 71

Miners, the, their petition in 1854,

Mines' Act, hostility to, 126; of 1842, 211

Miscegenation, or mixed breeding, loss of character through, 116; the peculiar vice of democracy, 157

Monarchy, Constitutional, establishment of, led to exploitation of the people, 87, 88

Mussolini, a journalist, 136

Naturalisation Act, of 1870, 122; due to the initiative of a Tory Government, 157 n.; not opposed by the Tories, 158

Newman, Cardinal, on private judgment, 176, 203 n.; his secession to Catholicism, 181

Nordic Stock, decline of in England, 159

Opportunism, condemnation of, 28; increasing, of political parties, 29

Over-Population, question of, urgent, 223, 224; can be approached quantitatively or qualitatively, 224; should be dealt with qualitatively, 232

Pakington, Sir John, his misguided views on national education, 112

Parliament, at first hated by the English, 185; evanescence of, 200, 201

Parliament Act, the, destroyed the Constitution, 191; peaceful passing of, nothing to be proud of, 192; has probably doomed House of Commons, 195; responsibility of Tories in making passing of, possible, 195; steps which led to, 196

Parliamentary Institutions, descredit of, 37

Party Government, false picture of, 14

Paul, St., his inflammatory doctrine of private judgment, 173 n.

Peel, Sir Robert, his Factory Bill of 1802, 111; his factory legislation, 124 n.

Petitioners and Abhorrers, meaning of terms, 84 n., treatment of, by organist, 70 n.

Pitt, might have helped George III to rule as a Patriot King, 87; and the creation of the Tory Party, 88 n.

Pitt, William, the younger, on Parliamentary representatives 206 n.

Pity, the sound and desirable, the proper objects of, 233

Plato, 49

Poincaré, a journalist, 136

Politician, the, definition of, 16

Politics, definition of, 15

Polycleitus, his sane and realistic canon of art, 53

Ponsonby, Arthur, on Conservatism, 27 n.; on inconsistency of Anglican Bishops, 177

Population, increase of in England, 94, 95, 98

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Primogeniture, Darwin on undesirability of, 61 n.

Prisons, Acts for securing better sanitation in, 97

Private Judgment, doctrine of, corrosive of authority and tradition, 172; forms basis of all Reformed Churches, 173; has led to chaos in every department of life, 174; has made England a home of raging amateurism and quackery, 175; leads to disintegration, 175; right of, makes ordering of Church of England very difficult, 182, 183

Progress, mere change not necessarily, 9; undesirable changes now generally termed, 10; not retarded by Conservatism, 11; a slow process of decline from the Middle Ages to our own Muddle Age, 102

Protestantism, incompatible with authority, 176; the religion of Liberalism, 177; a return to primitive Christianity, 178

Puritans, the, had no consideration for health, 66; put an end to close supervision of food and drink, 101; not favourable to learning, 107; their neglect of learning, 108

Race, definition of, 133; neglect of, detrimental to England, 134

Railways, the, inadequate safeguards demanded by the State from, 164

Rank, devoid of responsibility fit only for peacocks and Liberian negroes, 187, 188

Realism, connected with rural industry, 78, 79

Reformation, the, saved Christianity, 51; largely inspired by greed, 169; the English people at first hostile to, 173

Reform Bill, of 1692 opposed by Tories, 56; of 1832 and 1867 opposed by Lord Shaftesbury, 57

Revolution, the Industrial, changes introduced by, 88; consequence of these changes, 89; ill-health due to, 90

Revolutionary, the, the point at which he becomes a Conservative, 16

Robertson, J. M., his fantastic belief in equality, 64.

Romance, the unreal world of, 51

Romanticism, origin of, 50; due to conflict between Christian ideals and life, 52; its deleterious effect, 52; impermanence of, 54; flourishes in unhealthy conditions, 78; connected with industrialism, 78

Rousseau, his fantastic belief in equality, 64; his preposterous claim that man is born free, 68 n.

Royal Society, the, a Tory institution, 108

Russell, Lord John, opposed factory legislation, 126

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Sadler, M. T., his belief in property and responsibility, 59; his fight for the Factory Acts, 67; a Tory pioneer of Factory legislation, 125

Sanitary Act, passed, 99

Sex-Phobia, of New Testament, 178 n.

Shaftesbury, 7th Earl of, his opposition to Reform Bills, 57; his fight for the Factory Acts, 66; a pioneer of factory legislation, 125; introduced Mines' Act, 126

Shakespeare, outcome of aristocracy of labour, 46

Shaw, Bernard, his definition of a gentleman, 85

Slavery, system of, introduced by Liberal Acts which have pauperised the people, 144

Socialism, alluring nature of its fantastic Utopias, 73, 74; now the exponent of the Conservative doctrine that the people's health and happiness must be cared for, 137, 138; cause of, owes much to Protestantism, 177; can only be fought by means of ideas, 214

Socialists, are exploiters of the people, 216

Sparta, comparative permanence of, 72

S.P.C.K., foundation of, 109

Spencer, Herbert, his loose thinking, 132 n.

Stability, desirability of, 3

Steam Engine, invention of, 88

Strafford, his belief in property and responsibility, 59

Strikes, now the most formidable political weapon, 201; increase in, 201 n.

Sunday School Union, creation of, 109

Tacitus, 49

Tally-Men, their usurious trade with the poor, 241 n.

Taste, education in, necessary for dealing with degeneracy, 233

Tea, adulterated with worm dung, 142

Thames, the, pollution of, dealt with in 1345, 96

Theseus, Temple of, why it is a classic building, 48

Tories, the, Disraeli's condemnation of, 31; their failure during the Industrial Revolution, 88; infected by Whig methods, 92; laws against workmen's combinations repealed by, 94 n.; their failure to protect the nation against dishonest dealers, 102; patrons of learning, 108; opposed to Jewish emancipation, 119, 150; their indifference to the evils of the factory system, 124; their criminal indifference to the health and character of the people, 127; healthy attitude of early, towards Immigration, 156, 157; decline of their healthy dislike of the foreigner, 157, 158, 159; to blame for the present chaos in industry, 165, 166; first to use the weapon of creating new peers, 195. See also Conservatives.

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Tory, origin of the term, 84 n.

Tory Democracy, absurdity of the idea of, 73

Toryism, false association with Capitalism, 92 n.; missed its opportunity, 94; owing to negligence of its duties naturally confused with Capitalism, 98. See also Conservatism.

Tory Party, the, opposed to Reform Bill of 1692, 56; and Chatham's proposed reforms of 1770, 56 n.; and the Triennial Act of 1694; and the Kentish Petition of 1701, 57; the supporters of Church and Crown, 81; unable to support Charles II and James II, 82; creation of, in 1784, 88 n. See also Conservative Party.

Townsman, the, despised in the Middle Ages, 79

Trade Unionism, rise of, due to neglect to protect the workers, 162

Triennial Act, of 1694, opposed by Tories, 57

Trotsky, a journalist, 136

Tuberculosis, high death-rate from, in Dorset, 217

Ugliness, desires change, 42; a prerequisite of asceticism, 53

Uniformity, the various Acts of, 181 n.

Urbanisation, should be limited by Conservatives, 234; produces the worst type of citizen, 235

Vaccination, free, introduced, 99; a dangerous anti-Conservative innovation, 139

Voting, was originally for men and not for measures, 204, 205

Wellington, cleanliness of his army in Spain, 96

Westminster Abbey, being Gothic, has constantly to be repaired, 54 n.

Whig, origin of the term, 84 n.

Whigs, the, the opponents of a powerful Crown, 81; associated with Dissenters and tradesmen, 83; their heartless oligarchy in the eighteenth century, 91; their neglect of the nation's food, 101; attempts of, to provide national education, 110, 111. See also Liberals.

William III, the best of the late Stuart Kings, 86

Wolsey, outcome of aristocracy of labour, 46

Women, exploitation of, in mines, 126

Workers, the, have been obliged to protect themselves, 208, 210

Working-Classes, the, suggested reforms in some customs of, 240, 241

Wycliffe, preached community of goods, 178



First Chapter